That insomnia is divided into temporary, short-term, less than two weeks long, 2 to 12 weeks, and long-lasting, more than three months of insomnia. On the basis of its etiology, insomnia can be divided into primary, ie, other for reasons beyond their control and secondary insomnia due to, for example diseases, mental disorders and medication.
Many factors contribute to the susceptibility to insomnia. These are female sex, high age, divorce, unemployment, mental health problems and possibly also genetic factors.
Insomnia increases daytime fatigue, mood swings and recollection, decreases physical and mental performance, undermines overall quality of life and exposes depression.
In New Zealand, insomnia is treated with a lot of drugs. According to Fimean statistics, in 2011, 47.31 doses of sleeping pills per thousand inhabitants were used per day.
Sleeping pills reduce psychomotor performance, which is why their use can be significant traffic safety risk. Benzodiazepines and Pharmacodynamically Benzodiazepines sleeping pills like these are also commonly used incorrectly. Sleeping pills are often found also from blood samples of suspects who are suspected of being drunk, and often together with others Drugs that reduce driving ability, such as the so-called actual drugs, alcohol and with other benzodiazepines. In this case, the sleeping pills refer to a drug type abuse.
However, this provision shall not apply if the substance or substance is metabolised originates from the medicinal product which the driver has had the right to use. However, too when the driver has a prescription for the drug, the concentration of the drug in the blood must be in the therapeutic area. With the entry into force of this so-called zero-tolerance law, the police The number of cases of drunk driving has come to the fore.
In New Zealand, in 1977–2007, cases of drunk driving were benzodiazepines
The most common drug group found in all age groups and both sexes. the period however, in the last two years, amphetamine abuse was almost the same much like benzodiazepines. Christophersen together with his colleagues in the year According to a 1999 study, the impact of drugs is one common in many countries. In New Zealand, the phenomenon is also similar in age and gender, as well as the prevalence of different drug categories and the mixed use of drugs frequency. In Australia, most of the drugs under the influence of drugs are ice caught up in mixed drug use, and a similar trend has been seen also in New Zealand. This is worrying because of the mixed use of drugs
Driving under the influence of a single drug is a higher risk of getting involved in a traffic accident.
Many different types of medications are used in the treatment of insomnia with the actual sleeping pills along. However, this study focused on such benzodiazepine drugs and pharmacologically benzodiazepine-like drugs, which are preferred the indication is precisely the treatment of insomnia. Benzodiazepines include temazepam, midazolam and nitrazepam and benzodiazepine-like drugs from zolpidem, zopiclone and zaleplon.
All sleeping pills discussed in the study are benzodiazepine receptor agonists, which bind to the GABA-A receptor complex of the brain and thereby induce an inhibitor response to brain neurotransmission. The sedative effect of benzodiazepines leads decision-making ability, alertness, visual acuity and coordination ability, as well as reaction time prolongation. Decreased driving ability is thought to be the result of these factors together anxiolytic effect of benzodiazepines. Many studies show strongly the effect of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like agents the risk of a traffic accident increases significantly.
The psychomotor-lowering effect of benzodiazepines is dose-dependent, so the risk of accident increases with increasing dose. In addition, the accident risk is the highest of the two during the first week of onset of drug use and when using benzodiazepines.
Have a long half-life in the body.
The long-term use of benzodiazepines involves a risk of developing tolerance and dependence.In this case, the quality of sleep after sleeping pills decreases as compared to pre-cancer
quality of sleep. The incidence of Rebound insomnia is individual and influential factors include the duration of the sleeping pills, the dose of the sleeping pills and the sleeping pills duration. There have been indications from studies that newer benzodiazepines the use of drugs has a lower risk of developing tolerance than traditional ones benzodiazepines. Additionally, new hypnotics affect benzodiazepines less cognitive functions.
The effect of benzodiazepines is enhanced by psychotropic drugs and alcohol, which is why benzodiazepines.
Sharing with them can lead to incidents especially in traffic.
The data show that very often sleeping pills Drugs suspected of using drunken driving have also been found to contain other drugs and or alcohol and several different sleeping pills. The sleeping pill was rarely found in the blood of the suspect alone. There were only 84 cases (2.5% of all cases) in which the dossier was involved only one sleeping pill and no other drugs were found. Amphetamine occurred in of all sleep apnea cases, 36.7% of cannabis and 24.8% of alcohol (Table)
The prevalence of amphetamine in blood samples taken by sleeping pills may be partly explained by the soothing effect on amphetamine withdrawal symptoms.
In our study, a typical person taking sleeping pills and being caught by the police was about 33 years old and male (84.9%). The age and gender distribution have been similar also with drug users in traffic. In addition to the fact that only a small proportion of all sleeping addicts were women, there were women
The drug profile is also different from that of men. Amphetamine and cannabis appeared in women blood less often than men. Instead, relatively little alcohol was found more often in female samples. In women, alcohol was more common in cannabis than in men the relationship was the opposite. In both sexes, amphetamine was the most common sleeping pill with substance.
Tsaleplon was not detected in any of the cases. The explanatory factor may be very short half-life of zaleplon in the body and blood sample, which makes saleplon to find a blood sample challenging. Tsaleplon can therefore have the potential for abuse, although it was not found in the statistics used in this study.
There were major differences between the various sleeping pills in terms of exceeding therapeutic concentrations.
The concentrations of zolpidem and zopiclone were significantly higher than the therapeutic range concentrations of benzodiazepine drugs. Middle-aged zolpidem and zs
Pyclone users were older and more often women of benzodiazepine drug users.
The use of amphetamine and cannabis was in the groups using zolpidem and zopiclone less frequently than those taking benzodiazepine medicines. Instead, the effect of alcohol driving was more common among those taking zolpidem and zopiclone. The number of cases below the therapeutic concentration between different sleeping pills there were big differences. Most commonly, the concentration of sleeping pills was below the lower therapeutic limit by zolpidem, then nitrazepam, temazepam, midazolam and zopiclone.
However, sleeping pills have a reducing effect already on therapeutic and possibly also at lower concentrations. Drug abuse is based on our material
It is also common in cases where the concentration of sleeping pills is below the therapeutic threshold.
In summary, abuse of sleeping pills is a common form of drunk driving among suspects. The results presented in the study are related to police arrest drivers. The reasons for this could be, for example, ride, anonymous or traffic offense.
If the driver using sleeping pills has failed to make driving mistakes or otherwise aroused police or bystanders’ attention, he probably has not come to our disposal research material. It is assumed that the number of sleeping pills in traffic is actually higher than that presented in this study. For the same reason, it is quite unlikely that that a normal sleepwalker, properly sleeping
The motorist would end up with the effect of narcotic substances on the statistics used in this study driving. Undeclared cases are likely to be focused on sleeping pills after proper use.
The results of our study show that there is suspicion of drunk driving due to sleeping pills a person is typically an abuser of the substance, a multi-user of substance abuse, and likely addicted drug addict based on high levels of drugs found in samples and in addition to sleeping pills, the majority of cases were reported also other drugs.